Type of publication:
Peer-review published journal paper
Mechanism by which biodiversity affects poverty:
Biodiversity component details:
Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa)
The study assess hoe local people benefit from the Brazil nut industry in terms of income. But the authors put forward the idea that local people could gain more IF they receive some kind of payment for the ecosystem services as a result of them maintaining their forest concessions (instead of cutting trees down for another economic activity).
Measure of poverty impact used:
Income for Grazil nut collection - measured in USD for a minimum 800 hectare plot (equivalent to 320 productive Brazil nut trees).
Assessment of impact on poverty:
Evidence assesses the scale of impact:
Scale of impact details:
The total number of people working in Brazil nut harvesting in Peru is 30,000 - including harvesting processing and commerce.
Sustainability of biodiversity use:
Sustainability of biodiversity use details:
Brazil nut harvesting considered to be suatainable compared to other more destructive income generating activities.
Attribute of biodiversity affecting poverty:
Does the evidence relate to a specific intervention?:
How does the mechanism affect poverty?:
It generates income/tradeable surplus
Evidence provides measure of poverty impact:
Evidence is site-specific:
Research method details:
The authors applied a mosaic of Landsat TM imagery to reveal the environmental heterogeneity of the study area. Socio-economic data include interviews made with collectors, traders and exporters. A questionnaire was used during the interviews
Unit of analysis and sample size:
Does the evidence mention the general biodiversity status of the country/region?:
General biodiversity status described:
"It is hoped that the Brazil nut based economies would therefore help to preserve come of the Amazonian forests with their enormous biological values, climatic influences to atmospheric gas exchange may appear even more appealing uses of the same areas."
Does the evidence describe the biodiversity status of the site?:
Site biodiversity status described:
"Madre de Dios has an almost uninterrupted cover of rainforest vegetation with some deciduous emergent trees. These forests are well known for their high levels of biological diversity though also extensive thickets of species-poor arborescent bamboo are widespread."
Does the evidence mention the general poverty status of the country/region?:
Site poverty status described:
"As the majority of the concessionaires have practically no access to bank credit, opportunities for investments and improvements in the concession are limited and must be funded through alternative means."
Does the evidence discuss the governance regime at the site?:
Does the evidence describe the poverty/socioeconomic status of the site?:
What is the resource rights regime?:
Resource rights regime details:
"The Brazil nut trees in Peru are owned by the state, which may provide concessions to individuals with the exclusive rights to harvest the nuts in a given area. Currently there are around 1,200,000 hectares of NTFP concessions in Peru, including 60,000 hectares in titled indigenous peoples territories. There are almost one thousand separate concessions with their sizes ranging between 100 and 1200 hectares, the smallest of them usually belonging to the indigenous people."
What is the land tenure regime?:
Land tenure regime details:
local individuals have forest concessions.
Does the evidence mention the power relations?:
Does the evidence consider possible trade-offs/costs as well as benefits?:
Measure of poverty impact tag:
Distribution impacts considered:
Yes Detail on Specifics Provided
Duration of impact considered:
Distribution impacts details:
Some details mentioned - many of the people involved in collection are male
Duration of impact details:
"Most concessions have been working as gatherers for a long time already, sometimes being decedents of people who have a few decades ago migrated into the lowlands....
Outcome replicable elsewhere considered:
Thresholds/boundary limits/tipping points of achieving the outcome considered:
How costs and benefits/impacts might vary across different spatial scales considered:
Presence of possible confounding factors acknowledged: