Type of publication:
Peer-reviewed published grey literature
Mechanism by which biodiversity affects poverty:
Biodiversity component details:
Game species and devils claw (Harpagophytum procumbens)
Harvesting of Devils claw and the sale of hunting rights for trophy hunting. Trophy hunting has had a number of additional positive impacts due to the terms and conditions written into the contract, for example the trophy hunters are only allowed to take the head or another small part of the animal they hunted, the rest goes to the membership of the conservancy. Additionally a number of jobs have been created through the tourism and trophy hunting ventures.
Intervention employed other:
The organisation having gained the legal rights to benefit from the natural resources from the land they live on, the conservancy committee, made it one of their priorities to conserve the environment in order to enjoy the benefits of tourism and trophy hunting for a long time.
Measure of poverty impact used:
Income generated through sale of Devils Claw, and qualitative descriptions of the benefits from trophy hunting and tourism.
Assessment of impact on poverty:
Evidence assesses the scale of impact:
Scale of impact details:
When the monitored Devil's Claw harvest began in N/a Jaqna under the auspices of the conservancy the membership of the conservancy received approximately N$ 1.2 million in direct economic benefit from the harvest, in 2007 the revenue generated was N$200,000, and N$950,000 in 2009 the increase being due not only to a larger harvest, but also increased prices due to the organic status and better negotiations. Additionally tourism has created a number of jobs as tour guides etc, and trophy hunting has created jobs for rangers and game guides. The conservancy itself has generated 12 jobs directly.
Sustainability of biodiversity use:
Sustainability of biodiversity use details:
The committee is working with the trophy hunters and tour guides to ensure that the ventures are sustainable. For example, the trophy hunting company assists through the release of 250 individuals of various game species into the conservancy each year to offset the effects of hunting,.
Attribute of biodiversity affecting poverty:
Does the evidence relate to a specific intervention?:
How does the mechanism affect poverty?:
It supports immediate subsistence needs
It generates income/tradeable surplus
It contributes to long term resilience
Mechanism affects poverty precisely how:
The devils claw harvested can be used in traditional medicines, or can be sold to generate a cash income. Trophy hunting provides multiple benefits, in terms of income, in terms of jobs created, and in terms of the meat which contributes to food security. Finally tourism also provides a source of income through the jobs it creates.
Evidence provides measure of poverty impact:
Evidence is site-specific:
Unit of analysis and sample size:
Does the evidence mention the general biodiversity status of the country/region?:
Does the evidence describe the biodiversity status of the site?:
Site biodiversity status described:
Due to poaching and the over-harvesting of local flora within the surrounding areas, plant and wildlife populations had declined in the years leading up to the conservancy's creation.
Does the evidence mention the general poverty status of the country/region?:
Site poverty status described:
The residents of N/a Jaqna Conservancy the majority of who are indigenous San people, and nearly all of whom are poor rural dwellers with low education, surviving on subsistence farming, wild food collection and drought relief supplies.
Does the evidence discuss the governance regime at the site?:
Does the evidence describe the poverty/socioeconomic status of the site?:
The resource rights and management rights have been given to the local community who operate in a highly diplomatic processes of decision making, with all members (all 2,650 of them) having a vote (over the age of 16 male and female). When significant decisions are to be made the committee visits all villages to allow proper debate and to argue various sides of the argument before coming to consensus decision.
What is the resource rights regime?:
Resource rights regime details:
The resource rights have been given to the community to allow them to benefit from the natural resources. The conservancy voted on allowing the sale of licences for trophy hunting and tourism.
What is the land tenure regime?:
Land tenure regime details:
Community managed, but the land is held in trust by the state.
Does the evidence mention the power relations?:
Does the evidence consider possible trade-offs/costs as well as benefits?:
Measure of poverty impact tag:
Distribution impacts considered:
Duration of impact considered:
Duration of impact details:
Outcome replicable elsewhere considered:
Outcome replicable elsewhere details:
The project has been successful replicated in other areas, and is involved in a number of knowledge transfer projects.
Thresholds/boundary limits/tipping points of achieving the outcome considered:
How costs and benefits/impacts might vary across different spatial scales considered:
Presence of possible confounding factors acknowledged: