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Tools and methodologies

This page provides details of tools and methodologies that are relevant to the field of poverty-conservation linkages. The topics covered are biodiversity assessment, socio-economic impacts of conservation, planning tools, valuation tools and collections of tools.

We are always trying to further develop this page so if you would like to add a useful link or suggest an additional category of resources that should be included please contact us.


Biodiversity assessment

Exploring biological diversity, environment and local people's perspectives in forest landscapes. Methods for a multidisciplinary landscape assessment[PDF]: This document is intended for those interested in gathering natural resource information that reflects the needs of local communities.

Biodiversity-Inclusive Impact Assessment[PDF]:This document supports the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversity in EIA (environmental impact assessment) and SEA (strategic environmental assessment).

Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal[PDF]: Special issue on biodiversity and impact assessment of the Journal 'Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal'.

Integrating Biodiversity into Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Processes[PDF]: The main purpose of this document is to offer appropriate guidance on the integration of biodiversity into an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA).

Landscape Outcome Assessment Methodology (LOAM)[PDF]: This approach, developed by WWF, is aimed at enabling those working on landscape scale initiatives to be better able to measure, monitor and communicate the nature and extent to which a landscape is changing over time with respect to a small number of agreed conservation and livelihood outcomes.

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning for Mangrove Systems[PDF]: WWF has developed a methodology that can be used worldwide for assessing the vulnerability of mangrove ecosystems to the impacts of climate change and for developing adaptation strategies. This manual brings together a wealth of on-the-ground experience and scientific knowledge to help conservation practitioners, protected area managers and other stakeholders who are responsible for protecting and managing the world’s mangrove forests in a changing climate. 


Socio-economic impacts of conservation

Social Assessment of Conservation Initiatives: A review of rapid methodologies[PDF]: Some 30 tools and methods for assessing social impacts in protected areas and elsewhere are reviewed in this report, with a view to understanding how different researchers have tackled the various challenges associated with impact assessment.

Catalog of Conservation Social Science Tools: This Catalog aims to provide conservation practitioners with greater capacity to integrate social sciences into their work by linking practitioners to key social science tools and methodological approaches, and by providing context for these tools.

Developing Methodologies for Livelihood Impact Assessment: Experience of the African Wildlife Foundation in East Africa[PDF]: This paper explains the rationale for developing an impact assessment methodology incorporating livelihood analysis, summarises the methodology and its application, and identifies several lessons learnt from the application of the approach in two case studies in Kenya.

Measuring the impact of livelihoods initiatives in a conservation context[PDF]: This paper summarises the results of a multi-sectoral workshop held in July 2007.

Forest Quality: Assessing forests at a landscape scale: This book proposes a method for assessing forest quality at a landscape scale, through working with stakeholders to identify important aspects of quality and proposing ways of assessing these. It divides "quality" into three main elements: authenticity, environmental benefits and social and economic benefits.

Assessing Environment and Development Outcomes in Conservation Landscapes: A collaborative effort between IUCN, WWF and CIFOR has lead to the development of a conceptual framework aimed at assessing both livelihoods and biodiversity outcomes of conservation activities at the landscape level.

Socio-economic Impact Assessment Toolkit: A guide to assessing the socio-economic impacts of Marine Protected Areas in Australia: This toolkit has been developed to provide policy makers and the fishing sector with a general background and introduction to methods for assessing the socio-economic impacts within a fisheries context of proposals to declare MPAs in Australia. In particular, the toolkit focuses on potential impacts on the fishing industry, including related businesses and communities associated with fishing activities

The Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool: A proposed methodology[PDF]: The Protected Area Benefit Assessment Tool has been primarily designed for use by protected area managers to work with stakeholders to identify important values and the benefits that PAs bring to a range of stakeholders, from local to global.

Parks and People: Assessing the Human Welfare Effects of Establishing Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation: This paper summarises the main components of a strategy, developed by WCS, aimed at assessing the human impacts of PAs on local people.

Nature's Investment Bank: How Marine Protected Areas Contribute to Poverty Reduction[PDF]: This study proposes a qualitative and a quantitative assessment tools to explore the impact of MPAs on poverty reduction.


Planning tools

Environmental Mainstreaming - A User Guide to Tools and Tactics: In 2007, IIED launched the User Guide Project which focused on approaches (tools, methods and tactics) for integrating/mainstreaming environment in development decision-making. Information on this tools, as well as more information on Environmental Mainstreaming, can be found on this dedicated website.

NBSAPs 2.0: Mainstreaming biodiversity and development: All parties to the global Convention on Biological Diversity are revising their national biodiversity strategy and action plans (NBSAPs). This Darwin Initiative-funded project is making sure poverty alleviation is included in the strategies and plans in four developing countries. A number of tools on biodiversity mainstreaming have been produced in the course of this project.

Tools for Integrating Conservation and Development: The goal of CIFOR's project 'Tools for Integrating Conservation and Development' is to help agencies to design and implement better landscape-level conservation and development projects by learning from the successes and failures of past initiatives and understanding the trade-offs and synergies between livelihoods and conservation.

Power tools: for policy influence in natural resource management: This website introduces a range of Power Tools with 'how-to' ideas that marginalised people and their allies can use to have a greater positive influence on natural resources policy.

Poverty-Forest Linkages Toolkit: PROFOR has developed a 'Poverty-Forests Linkages Toolkit' to build better knowledge on the relationship between poverty and forests, and to facilitate relevant data collection and analysis.

A Toolkit for Assessment of Landscape Conservation (TALC)[PDF]: TALC has been developed to aid field practitioners in reviewing their progress in planning and implementing landscape conservation initiatives.

Guidelines for Developing, Testing and Selecting Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management[PDF]: This manual provides methods for the development and evaluation of criteria and indicators (C&I) which can then be used to assess the sustainability of forest management.


Valuation tools

Economic Tools for the Management of Marine Protected Areas in Eastern Africa[PDF]: This guide provides a framework for analysing the economics of marine protected areas including identifying the benefits and costs of marine protected areas, valuing those benefits and costs, analysing the distribution of costs and benefits and therefore the need for incentives and financial mechanisms, and integrating economic measures into protected area management.


Collections of tools

Earth conservation toolbox: The earth conservation toolbox is a multi-organisational initiative building an open-access database of tools and methodologies to help field programmes, governments and others implement the ecosystem approach to conservation.