Type of publication:
Peer-reviewed published grey literature
Mechanism by which biodiversity affects poverty:
Biodiversity component details:
Various trees species, specifically mentioned species are leguminous trees which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and windshield tree species which reduce wind erosion.
Harvesting of timber and NTFPs from the trees that have been planted, and indirect benefits from the ecosystem services offered by the planted trees.
Intervention employed other:
The project promoted the integration of trees into agriculture to bring around a number of benefits for both conservation and development.
Measure of poverty impact used:
Increase in crop yields, revenue generated from the sale of seedlings at nurseries. Sales from the commercialization of honey. Empowerment of a marginalized community and groups with the community.
Assessment of impact on poverty:
Evidence assesses the scale of impact:
Scale of impact details:
More productive farming systems, a reduced need for artificial fertilizers and pesticides. For example intercropping with nitrogen fixing tree species has improved soil fertility, and resulted in a doubling of crop yields. Sales from the RARC tree nurseries have been significant, annual sales rose from US$90 in 2003 to US$1,350 in 2009. For satellite nurseries sales from grem US$20 to US$100 in the same time. The commercialisation of honey has brought in significant revenue, accruing to US$13,000 between 2007 and 2009.
Sustainability of biodiversity use:
Attribute of biodiversity affecting poverty:
Does the evidence relate to a specific intervention?:
How does the mechanism affect poverty?:
It supports immediate subsistence needs
It generates income/tradeable surplus
It contributes to long term resilience
Mechanism affects poverty precisely how:
The harvested timber and NTFPs can be used to meet immediate subsistence needs, or can be sold to generate a cash income. Additionally the trees have provided a number of ecosystem services, including filtration of water supplies, which has significantly improved water quality in the area, nitrogen fixation which has drastically improved soil quality resulting in increased crop yields, and as windbreaks helping to reduce further erosion by the wind.
Evidence provides measure of poverty impact:
Evidence is site-specific:
Unit of analysis and sample size:
Does the evidence mention the general biodiversity status of the country/region?:
General biodiversity status described:
The region and its ecosystems have suffered extensive deforestation.
Does the evidence describe the biodiversity status of the site?:
Site biodiversity status described:
The forest is a vestige of regional biodiversity and contains a wide range of unique ecosystems, flora and fauna. The mountainsides and hills surrounding Riba, however, have been heavily logged and degraded which has resulted in a loss of soil fertility, biodiversity and overall economic security for the local population.
Does the evidence mention the general poverty status of the country/region?:
Site poverty status described:
The mountainsides and hills surrounding Reba, however, have been heavily logged and degraded which has resulted in a loss of soil fertility, biodiversity and overall economic security for the local population.
Does the evidence discuss the governance regime at the site?:
Does the evidence describe the poverty/socioeconomic status of the site?:
One of the first moves of the project was to have the community leader made an official custodian of government-owned land, giving hem control over its distribution and responsibility for resolving any emerging conflicts.
What is the resource rights regime?:
Resource rights regime details:
Community land that has been distributed to individuals, therefore the individuals who manage the crops etc on the land have the rights to its resources.
What is the land tenure regime?:
Land tenure regime details:
Does the evidence mention the power relations?:
Does the evidence consider possible trade-offs/costs as well as benefits?:
Measure of poverty impact tag:
Distribution impacts considered:
Duration of impact considered:
Duration of impact details:
Outcome replicable elsewhere considered:
Outcome replicable elsewhere details:
The model has been shared with 80 other communities, 20 of which are actively replicating the project.
Thresholds/boundary limits/tipping points of achieving the outcome considered:
How costs and benefits/impacts might vary across different spatial scales considered:
Presence of possible confounding factors acknowledged: