Type of publication:
Peer-reviewed published grey literature
Mechanism by which biodiversity affects poverty:
Biodiversity component details:
Medicinal plants, medicinal plants genetic material, protected areas, areas of outstanding national beauty, fisheries, ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration.
Harvesting of timber and NTFPs, non use include the creation of conservation jobs, and spill over of benefits from tourism occurring in an area.
Intervention employed other:
Extractive reserve permitting commercialisation of timber and non timber forest products through local cooperatives. COOPERACRE is dedicated to the production, processing and commercialization of NTFPs. COOPERFLORESTA is dedicated to the sustainable community management of timber to FSC standards.
Measure of poverty impact used:
Income generated from medical plants, percentage contribution to GPD, financial contribution that tourism makes to livelihoods.
Assessment of impact on poverty:
Evidence assesses the scale of impact:
Scale of impact details:
Percentage of pharmaceutical sector's turnover ($650 billion annually) derived from genetic resources: 20 to 50%. Namibia's protected areas contribute 6% if GDP in tourism alone with a significant potential for growth. Years of Mexico's carbon dioxide emissions offset by its protected areas, more than five, value of this service is estimated at US$12.2 billion. Nearly a sixth of the world's population depends on protected areas for a significant proportion of their livelihoods. Over a billion people in developing countries rely on fish as their major source of food. About 1 million jobs created globally in the motorising and protection of the worlds marine protected area. Wetlands of Okavango Delta generates US$32 million per year to local households of Botswana.1.6 billion people globally rely on timber and NTFPs. 80% of people in Africa rely on traditional medicines as the main source of their health care needs.
Sustainability of biodiversity use:
Sustainability of biodiversity use details:
The data shows deforestation rates slowing over the same time period that income from forest products is increasing. Timber is FSC certified
Attribute of biodiversity affecting poverty:
Does the evidence relate to a specific intervention?:
How does the mechanism affect poverty?:
It supports immediate subsistence needs
It generates income/tradeable surplus
It contributes to long term resilience
Mechanism affects poverty precisely how:
Direct uses include harvesting of goods to meet subsistence needs, harvesting goods in order to sell, direct use as traditional medicines. Non use include, income generated through tourism in the area, the creation of conservation related jobs.
Evidence provides measure of poverty impact:
Evidence is site-specific:
Research method details:
Methods are note described but quantitative data is presented
Does the evidence mention the general biodiversity status of the country/region?:
General biodiversity status described:
Globally the booklet discusses how all the vital signs of biodiversity are dropping.
Does the evidence describe the biodiversity status of the site?:
Site biodiversity status described:
well-conserved closed-canopy forest.
Does the evidence mention the general poverty status of the country/region?:
General poverty status described:
The paper discusses the poor of the world generally.
Does the evidence discuss the governance regime at the site?:
The forest is managed as an extractive reserve although the paper notes "The history of cooperative management in Acre and across Amazonia has been riddled with failures, resulting principally from poor organization and management and corruption"
What is the resource rights regime?:
Resource rights regime details:
The parameters within which Extractive Reserves operate vary. Two distinct situations exist, one for timber, the other for NTFPs. In the case of timber, a regulatory framework clearly defines the management system and the maximum volume of timber that can be removed. All families living within the Extractive Reserve are authorized to do so, and their use rights are recognized by law. The area usage is family-based rather than communal and each family has a designated area; within this area up to 5% of forest can be converted to other uses.
What is the land tenure regime?:
Land tenure regime details:
The forest is state owned but managed by resident families. Tenure patterns vary among the large number of families within the landscape, but all tenure is legally recognized.
Does the evidence mention the power relations?:
Does the evidence consider possible trade-offs/costs as well as benefits?:
Measure of poverty impact tag:
Duration of impact considered:
Outcome replicable elsewhere considered:
Thresholds/boundary limits/tipping points of achieving the outcome considered:
How costs and benefits/impacts might vary across different spatial scales considered:
Presence of possible confounding factors acknowledged: